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Is netelige olywe indringend - leer hoe om netelige olyfplante te beheer

Is netelige olywe indringend - leer hoe om netelige olyfplante te beheer


Deur: Liz Baessler

Elaeagnus pungens, meer algemeen bekend as netelige olyf, is 'n groot, netelige, vinnig groeiende plant wat indringend is in sommige dele van die Verenigde State en in baie meer moeilik om ontslae te raak. Inheems in Japan, groei die netelige olyf as 'n struik en soms as 'n wingerdstok wat 1-8 meter hoog is.

Doringagtige olyfbestryding kan moeilik wees as gevolg van die lang, skerp dorings wat uit sy takke uitspruit, en weens die verspreiding van sade uit die vrugte daarvan. Hou aan lees om meer feite oor te leer Elaeagnus pungens en hoe om netelige olyfplante te bestry.

Is Thorny Olive indringend?

Waar is netelige olyf indringend? In Tennessee en Virginia is dit wel, maar dit is ook 'n oorlas in baie ander state. Dit is gehard in USDA sones 6 tot 10 en word maklik versprei deur die mis van voëls wat die vrugte daarvan geëet het.

Dit is ook baie verdraagsaam teenoor droogte, skaduwee, sout en besoedeling, wat beteken dat dit in allerlei ruimtes sal opkom en dikwels inheemse plante sal verdring. Doringagtige olyf het sy plek en is baie effektief as 'n versperring, maar vanweë die neiging om te versprei, is dit dikwels nie die moeite werd nie.

Hoe om netelige olyfplante te beheer

Die bestuur van netelige olyfplante werk die beste met 'n kombinasie van manuele verwydering, gevolg deur chemiese toediening. As u plant groot en gevestig is, het u dalk 'n kettingsaag of ten minste hegstang nodig om dit naby die grond te kap.

U kan die wortelbal opgrawe, of om die blootgestelde punte van die stompies met 'n sterk onkruiddoderoplossing te bespuit. Wanneer die stompe nuwe groei ontkiem, spuit dit weer.

Die beste tyd om u netelige olyfbestryding te doen, is voordat die vrugte in die herfs geplant word om die verspreiding van sade te voorkom.

Let wel: Chemiese bestryding moet slegs as 'n laaste uitweg gebruik word, aangesien organiese benaderings veiliger en baie meer omgewingsvriendelik is.

Hierdie artikel is laas opgedateer op


Hoe om silwerbessie struike te snoei

As u 'n oproerige silwerbessie-ruigtes het, kan u dit op die grond sny en laat regenereer. Silwebessie-struike sal weer uit hul wortels groei.

As u silwerbessiestruike wil verbou, maar nie die suiers wil hanteer nie, plant dan die struike waar hulle net ses uur direkte son per dag in onverbeterde sanderige of kleigrond kry. Dit sal die groei van die struike beperk, terwyl u steeds die geurige blomme en ongewone bessies en blare kan geniet.

Plant silwerbessiestruike op walle en laat hulle as erosiebeheer optree. Die oewer en heuwels sal oor twee tot drie jaar bedek wees.

Silwebessie-struike kan indringend wees as hulle na hul eie reg laat.

Silwerbessie-struike benodig nie snoei om blom of vrugte te stimuleer nie. Trouens, hulle het net genoeg snoei nodig om hul groei in toom te hou.

Silwerbessie-struike is aantreklik vir takbokke en ander groot herbivore. U kan hierdie struike as lokvinkplante gebruik om takbokke weg te hou van die res van u tuin, maar silwerbessie-struike sal steeds takbokke lok wat uiteindelik die res van u tuin kan plunder.

Silwerbessies is die algemene naam van 'n paar elaeagnus-spesies. Elaeagnus commutata is die enigste silwerbessie-struik wat in Noord-Amerika afkomstig is. Elaeagnus pungens, ook genoem netelige silwerbessies, is die struik wat die meeste in tuine voorkom. Albei silwerbessie-struike het liggroen blare bedek met vae silwer skubbe. E. commutata het ware silwer of wit bessies terwyl dit e. ponge het rooi bessies bedek met silwer kolle (of silwer bessies bedek met rooi kolle) en 2 tot 3 duim-lang dorings. Silwer bessie struike vorm ruigtes, wat dit ideaal maak vir erosiebeheer en heinings of wildaanplantings. Silwerbessie-struike wat as sierplante geplant word, moet minstens elke tweede jaar gesnoei word om hul uitbundige groei in toom te hou.

  • Silwerbessies is die algemene naam van 'n paar elaeagnus-spesies.
  • Elaeagnus commutata is die enigste silwerbessie-struik wat in Noord-Amerika afkomstig is.

Snoei silwerbessiestruike om vorm en grootte te handhaaf terwyl hulle dormant is. U kan dit doen in die laat winter / vroeë lente of in die middel tot laat herfs nadat die blare val. Dra hemde en handskoene met lang moue wanneer u snoei, aangesien sommige silwerbessie-struike lang dorings het.

Gebruik snoeiskêr om gebreekte takke net bokant 'n sterk knop (die plek waar blare na vore kom) te verwyder.

Verwyder takke wat binne-in die struik groei of teen ander takke vryf. In die geval van twee takke wat teen mekaar vryf, verwyder die kleiner (of swakker) tak. Gebruik snoeiskêr vir takke van minder as 1/4 duim in deursnee en snoeisae vir takke met groter deursnee.

  • Snoei silwerbessiestruike om vorm en grootte te handhaaf terwyl hulle dormant is.
  • Gebruik snoeiskêr om gebreekte takke net bokant 'n sterk knop (die plek waar blare na vore kom) te verwyder. Verwyder takke wat in die struik groei of teen ander takke vryf.

Vorm die silwerbessiestruik deur oneweredige groei te verminder (groei aan die een kant of in een gebied langer). Maak snye net bokant sterk knoppies of takke. U kan 1/2 van die takke van silwerbessiestruike verwyder sonder om die groei te beïnvloed, alhoewel daar minder blomme en bessies in die jaar geproduseer word.

Verwyder suiers (lote wat uit die wortels van die ouerplant uitspruit) met 'n skerp graaf. Ry die graaf 3 tot 4 sentimeter in die grond tussen die suier en die ouerbos. Dit sny die stam af wat die twee verbind. Plaas die graaf so na as moontlik aan die onderkant van die suier. Plaas die graaf in 'n hoek van 45 grade onder die basis van die suier en druk opwaartse druk uit. Dit moet uit die grond spring. As die suier hardkoppig is, moet u die wortels aan die ander kant onderkry.

  • Vorm die silwerbessiestruik deur oneweredige groei te verminder (groei aan die een kant of in een gebied langer).
  • Ry die graaf 3 tot 4 sentimeter in die grond tussen die suier en die ouerbos.

Verwyder dooie takke op enige tyd van die jaar. Maak snye 2 tot 3 duim in gesonde hout en 1/2 duim bokant 'n sterk knop of tak.


Die beskrywe Immergroen struike onder die see

Daar kan gesê word dat die onderstaande struike die elemente van is 'Struktuur', die elemente wat by die plant pas 'Geraamte'van die seetuin. Op hierdie 'skelet' kan die oorblywende plante gevoeg word wat die individuele plantstelle van die tuin of plantarea sal saamstel. Die meerderheid van hierdie immergroen struike is geskik vir direkte kusblootstelling aanplant.

Die Plantelys

  • Atriplex halimus (Mediterreense soutbos)
  • Brachyglottis greyi (Daisy Bush)
  • Callistemon citrinus (Crimson Bottlebrush)
  • Carissa macrocarpa (Natal Plum)
  • Cistus creticus (Pink Rock-Rose)
  • Coprosma repens (Mirror Bush)
  • Elaeagnus pungens (Thorny Olive)
  • Elaeagnus x ebbingei (Ebbing's Silverberry)
  • Escallonia rosea (Escallonia)
  • Escallonia rubra (Rooi Escallonia)
  • Euonymous fortunei (Fortune's Spindle)
  • Euonymus japonicus (Immergroen spil)
  • Euryops pectinatus (grysblaar-euryops)
  • Fuchsia magellanica (Hardy Fuchsia)
  • Grevillea aquifolium (Holly Grevillea)
  • Laurus nobilis (Bay Laurel)
  • Leptospermum laevigatum (Kusteeboom)
  • Lonicera nitida (kamperfoelie)
  • Lonicera pileata (kamperfoelie met boksblare)
  • Melaleuca nesophila (Showy Honey-Myrtle)
  • Myoporum insulare (gewone Boobialla)
  • Nerium oleander (Oleander)
  • Olearia traversii (Chatham Island Akeake)
  • Pistacia lentiscus (mastiekboom)
  • Pittosporum tenuifolium (Kohuhu)
  • Pittosporum tobira (Japanese kaashout)
  • Polygala myrtifolia (Myrtle-Leaf Milkwort)
  • Pyrachantha coccinea (rooi vuurtoring)
  • Rhaphiolepis umbellata (Yeddo Hawthorn)
  • Westringia fruticosa (kusroosmaryn)

Immergroen struike vir kusgebiede


Tobira

Tobira, ook bekend as Japanese pittosporum (Pittosporum tobira), groei vinnig tot 8 tot 10 voet, en dan vertraag die groeitempo. Die finale hoogte is tussen 8 en 12 voet en die verspreiding is 12 tot 18 voet, wat dit 'n goeie windskerm maak. Dit dra soet geurige roomwit blomme vroeg tot middelveer as dit nie gesnoei word nie. U kan hierdie boom in kusgebiede en droogtegeteisterde gebiede plant, en dit is gehard deur USDA-sone 8. Dit moet goed gedreineerde grond hê en gereeld natgemaak word terwyl dit jonk is.


PLANTE WAT BESSIES BLAASVOËLS SAL EET

Opmerking: Ek is op soek na bevestiging - as u gesien het dat blouvoëls bessies eet van 'n plant hieronder met 'n "?" daarna kontak my gerus. Plante wat geel uitgelig is (met 'n "#" agter die algemene naam, word in sommige gebiede as indringend beskou en moet nooit geplant word nie.

Hierdie webwerf fokus op Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Kyk hieronder vir plante wat Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) kan bevoordeel. Western Bluebirds neem steeds af, dus hierdie natuurlike, inheemse voedselbronne is besonder krities.

* Bluebirds eet ook gif klimop (Rhus radikane), en gif eikehout (Toxidendron diversilobum) bessies, wat wit is.

Dit lyk nie of hulle daarvan hou nie Nandina binnelandse (Hemelse bamboes, nie-inheems) - 'n jeugdige is gesien hoe hy die vrugte uitspoeg.

Sodra die vel stukkend is, sal blouvoëls appels, pere, vye, bing, soetsuur kersies en alle soorte druiwe pik en eet. Blouvoëls voed ook met hickory, okkerneute, kastaiings, pekanneute, botterskorsies, varkneute en ander neute wanneer ander voëls, diere of motors die skulpe vergruis sodat hulle by die vleis uitkom.

Western Bluebirds mag bessies van die volgende eet ([c] = bevestig). Baie van hierdie plante is droogtetolerant. Die vloeistof in die bessies van plante soos die Lemonadeberry kan gedurende die warm somermaande net so belangrik wees vir suidwestelike voëls as bessies met 'n hoë kalorie vir die Oosterse voëls gedurende die winter.

  • Baja Bird Bush (Ornithostaphylos oppositifolia)
  • Groot sageborsel (Artemisia tridentata)
  • Brame en frambose (Rubus spp.) [c]
  • Kaliforniese aanhangerpalm (Washingtonia filifera) - vesels wat ook vir nesmateriaal gebruik word [c]
  • Kaliforniese (Peruaanse) Peppertree (Schinus molle) - harde pienk bessie. Kan die laaste uitweg kos wees. Nie-inheems. Benodig man en vrou. [c]
  • Cascara (sade) (Rhammus purshiana] [c]
  • Chokecherries (Prunus virginiana] [c]
  • Koffiebessie (Rhamnus californica)
  • Coralberry (Symphoricarpos orbiculatus)
  • Aalbes (Ribes spp.] [c]
  • Hawe (Rumex spp.) [c]
  • Dwerg maretak (Arceuthobium pusillum)
  • Dwerg sumac (Rhus copallina] [c]
  • Vlierbes
    • swartkraal (Sambucus melanocarpa)
    • Blou (Sambucus caerulea - droë gebiede) [c]
    • Mexikaans (Sambucus mexicanus] [c]
    • Stille Oseaanrooi (Sambucus callicarpa)
  • Vye (Ficus spp.) [c]
  • Druiwe (Vitus spp.] [c]
  • Juniper (Juniperus] [c]
  • Hollyleaf Cherry (Prunus ilicifolia)
  • Lantana (Lantana sp.)
  • Lourier sumac (Rhus laurina)
  • Suurlemoenbessie (Rhus integrifolia] [c]
  • Maretak spp., Eik (bv. Phoradendron coryae) [c] - drinkwater herhaaldelik waargeneem tydens voeding deur Bob Schmalzel in Tucson
  • Nagskadu (Solanum spp.) [c]
  • Redberry (Rhamnus crocea en Rhamnus ilicifolia] [c]
  • Dienbessie (Amelanchier alnifolia] [c]
  • Oregon druif (Mahonia aquifolium] [c]
  • Stille Oseaan madrone (Arbutus menziesii)
  • Peperboom (Schinus molle] [c]
  • Poison Oak (Rhus diversiloba] [c]
  • Pruimedante en kersies (Prunus spp.] [c]
  • Smartweed (Polygonus spp.) [c]
  • Toyon / Kersbessie (Heteromeles arbutifolia] [c]
  • Wilde Roos (Rosa woodsii)

Benewens die vrugtebronne, kan u inheemse plante byvoeg wat eetbare insekte en ruspes ondersteun, soos Coffeeberry, California Aster, Ceanothus, Baja Fairy Duster en Sticky Monkeyflower.

Bronne en skakels vir meer inligting:

  • Interessante video van hoë gehalte van blouvoëls wat rondom 'n nesboks hang, wat hackberry-saad inbreek, iwishicouldfly.com
  • Bluebird Listserv - Beste van die advertensies
  • Conservation Landscaping - wenke van die National Audubon Society
  • Kornoeljebessies - versamel, voer, bestel (Finch Homes for Bluebirds). Vrugte hou dit ongeveer 'n maand lank op 'n koel, droë plek.
  • Gunsteling vrugtebome vir die natuurlewe - Little Tchefunct Wildlife Habitat
  • Plant vir die natuurlewe
  • Skakels na inheemse plantverenigings ens.
  • Geniet van Bluebirds More, The Bluebird Landlord's Handbook, J. Zickefoose
  • Blouvoëls dwarsoor Nebraska - Bessieproduserende plante wat blouvoëls lok
  • The Bluebird Monitor's Guide, C. Berger, K. Kridler, J. Griggs
  • Bluebirds Forever, C. Toops
  • Indringerplante - Sierplante buite beheer
  • Invasive.org - Sentrum vir indringende spesies en ekosisteemgesondheid
  • Indeks van algemene plantname
  • Plantbewaringsalliansie-lys van indringerplante (op naam, toon state)
  • Stokes Bluebird Book, Donald en Lillian Stokes
  • USDA Plante-databasis
  • Suidelike plante om voëls te lok (Hummingbird Hill)

Mag al u blues voëls wees!

As u probleme ondervind met die webwerf / gebreekte skakels vind / voorstelle / regstellings het, asseblief Kontak my!
Die doel van hierdie webwerf is om inligting te deel met almal wat belangstel in die bewaring van blouvoëls.
Skakel gerus daarna (verkies as ek gereeld inhoud opdateer), of gebruik teks daaruit vir persoonlike of opvoedkundige doeleindes, met 'n skakel terug na http://www.sialis.org of 'n aanhaling vir die outeur.
Geen toestemming word vir kommersiële gebruik verleen nie.
Die voorkoms van outomaties gegenereerde Google of ander advertensies op hierdie webwerf beteken nie die goedkeuring van enige van die dienste of produkte nie!

Foto in kopkop deur Wendell Long.
© Oorspronklike foto's is onder outeursreg, en mag nie gebruik word sonder die uitdruklike toestemming van die fotograaf nie. Respekteer asseblief hul kopieregbeskerming.
Sien vrywaring, noodsaaklik deur die ongelukkige wêreld van vandag.
Laas 22 Maart 2017 opgedateer. Ontwerp deur Chimalis.


As u 'n meer tropiese voorkoms vir u landskap wil hê, het u baie opsies. U moet steeds in ag neem watter soorte skadu-verdraagsaam is en watter plante son benodig, afhangende van die omstandighede in die area wat u wil plant.

Palms is die mees voor die hand liggende toevoeging om u eiendom in 'n tropiese oase te omskep. Of dit nou 'n groot Sabal Palmetto of 'n kleiner Saw Palmetto is, hierdie plante is aangepas om in kusgebiede te floreer.

Siergrasse soos die Sandkoordgras werk goed langs die kus as dit gekombineer word met Oleander, Bougainvillea en sommige van die onderstaande meerjarige plante. 'N Kombinasie van hierdie plante kan u help om 'n mooi tropiese ontsnapping te skep.

Tropiese meerjariges wat goed vaar op die strand, sluit in:

  • Wright se Texas Firecracker (Anisacanthus wrightii)
  • Pers melkbos (Asclepias purpurascens)
  • Gietyster aanleg (Aspidistra elatior)
  • Verskeie Angel’s Trumpets (Brugmansia) variëteite, waaronder "Betty Marshall", "Double White", "Charles Grimaldi", "Cherub", "Snowbank", "Sunset", "Intrigue", "Lemon Punch", "Minerva", "Orange Punch" en "Pacific Skoonheid ”
  • Verskeie Canna (Canna x generalis) variëteite, soos “Bengal Tiger”, “Blueberry Sparkler”, “Chocolate Sunrise”, “Ermine”, “Flaming Kabobs”, “Phasion” en “Pink Sunburst”
  • Louisiana Canna (Canna glauca), spesifiek die variëteite “Karin” en “Panache”
  • Die "Rooi Streep" Wilde canna-lelie (Canna indica)
  • Verskeie variëteite Crinum-lelie (Crinum americanum), waaronder “Elizabeth Traub”, “Ellen Bosanquet”, “Infusion”, “Li'l Stinker”, “Parfait”, “Persephone”, “Peyton’s Place”, “Pink Trumpet”, “Sangria”, “Super Ellen” en “Wadepoel”
  • Die "Schreck" spesie van melk- en wynlelie (Crinum x herbertii)
  • King’s Cross (Dicliptera suberekta)
  • Vier variëteite van Garland Flower (Hedychium coronarium) (“Anne Bishop”, “Daniel Weeks”, “Kin Ogi” en “Vanilla Ice”)
  • "Applecourt" en "Slim's Orange" tipes Scarlet Ginger Lily (Hedychium coccineum)
  • Kahili Ginger-verskeidenheid "Prayer Flags" (Hedychium urophyllum)
  • "Anna's Red" tipe Lenten Rose (Helleborus orientalis)
  • "Red Silver" weergawe van Stinking hellebore (Helleborus foetidus)
  • Meer as 'n dosyn Hellebore (Helleborus x hubridus) variëteite
  • Vierdaglelie (Hemerocallis) variëteite: "August Flame", "Autumn Minaret", "Freewheelin '" en "Steeple Jackie"
  • Rooi yucca (Hesperaloe parviflora)
  • "Swamp Angel", "Cranberry Crush", "Fantasia", "Fireball", "Heartthrob" en "Midnight Marvel" Texas-hibiskus (Hibiscus coccineus) variëteite
  • China het gestyg (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) variëteite, waaronder "Raspberry Rose", "Flora Plena", "Peppermint Flare", "Robert Fleming" en "Summer Storm"
  • Amaryllis-lelie (Voodoo)Hippeastrum puniceum)
  • 'N Dosyn Hosta-variëteite
  • “Dick Weaver” en “Dunbar Creek” tipes tuinflox (Phlox Paniculata) variëteite
  • 'Chi chi' verskeidenheid van die Mexikaanse petunia (Ruellia brittoniana)
  • Die "Ragin 'Cajun" Rooi ruellia (Ruellia elegans)
  • Die "Amistad" tipe Sage (Salvia)
  • Maalblou salie (Salvia farinacea)
  • Herfs salie (Salvia greggii)
  • Chinese windpomppalm (Trachycarpus fortunei)
  • Augustus reënlelie (Zephyranthes candida)

Nog 'n opsie is om houers vir u landskap te gebruik, sodat u die plante binne kan bring om die soutgehalte van die grond te beheer. Deur hierdie benadering te gebruik, het u die buigsaamheid om laer soutverdraagsame alternatiewe te gebruik as watter spesies in ander gebiede goed kan werk. U kan ook die soutgehalte van die grond verander of 'n heining of 'n ander versperring bou om die plante te beskerm om die verskeidenheid plante wat u vir u huis aan die strand sal kies, te vergroot.


BESTUURSOORWEGINGS

Russies-olyf is bevorder vir aanplantings om wild te bevoordeel omdat dit oorvloedige, eetbare vrugte lewer, en daar is berig dat verskeie inheemse voëls en soogdiere Russies-olyf vir voedsel, nes en bedekking gebruik het [10,16,43,77,106,108,140,143,172,175]. Borell [16] berig dat meer as 50 soorte voëls en soogdiere die vrugte van Russies-olyf eet. Hiervan is 12 wildsvogels, waaronder ringnekfasant, grouse, wilde eend, kwartels, wilde kalkoen en rouduif. Die meeste voëls sluk die vrugte heel in, terwyl sommige die pulp uit die saad pluk. Sade wat in die lente op die grond uitspruit, word ook maklik geëet. Ander natuurlewe waarvan bekend is dat hulle Russies-olyfvrugte eet, sluit katoenstaart, jakkalsekhoring, gemaalde eekhoring, elande en takbokke in [16]. Eekhorings eet ook Russies-olyfbas en jong takke [172]. Sakkers gaan soms so swaar aan die wortels van jong bome dat die bome vrek. Knaagdiere beskadig selde die bas of wortels van volwasse bome [16]. Granivorie deur generalistiese soogdiere (hoofsaaklik huismuise en takbokmuise) het ontkieming van Russies-olyfolies heeltemal buite die klein soogdieruitsluitings in studiepersele in Colorado [95] voorkom. Lys van spesies waargeneem deur gebruik te maak van Russies-olyf inheemse oewer- en hooggebiede, word verskaf deur Knopf en Olson [103].

Terwyl daar gesê word dat Russies-olyf nektar vir bye bied (Hayes 1976, soos aangehaal deur [96]), dui die resensies daarop dat insekte slegs by lae digthede op Russies-olyf gevind word [16,96,177], en dat die vrugte nie verteer word nie. deur insekte [191]. Dix en ander [54] stel voor dat sprinkane soms blare van jong bome sowel as die vlesige deel van die vrugte inneem.

Daar word voorgestel dat Russies-olyf vir sommige spesies die habitat van wildlewe kan verbeter, maar dat dit in 'n mindere mate gebruik word as inheemse plantegroei [52]. Dit kan 'n groter impak hê op spesies soos holtes en insekvretende voëls op terreine waar Russies-olywe die voormalige dominante katoenhout en wilg vervang (sien Impacts and Succession). Daarbenewens oes inheemse bever selde Russies-olyfbome, en die erns van die bewerbeskadiging was laag in vergelyking met die vrektes en skade wat inheemse vlaktes katoenhout aangerig is aan die riviere Marias [111], onderste Yellowstone, Bighorn [113] en Melk [140] ] in Montana.

Smaaklikheid / voedingswaarde: Hansen en ander [81] beskou die smaaklikheid van Russies-olyf as swak vir beeste, mak skape en perde met matige energie- en proteïenwaardes. Hulle rangskik voedselwaarde of gebruiksgraad as billik vir elande, witsterthertjies en pronkhorings wat swak is vir muilehertjies en goed vir bergwildvoëls, watervoëls, klein nongame-voëls en klein soogdiere [81].

Dittberner en Olson [53] se smaaklikheid vir vee- en wildsoorte in verskeie westelike deelstate is soos volg beoordeel:

CO MT ND UT WY
Beeste Swak Regverdig Regverdig Swak Swak
Skape Regverdig Regverdig Goed Regverdig Regverdig
Perde Swak Swak Swak Swak Swak
Pronghorn ---- Regverdig ---- Regverdig Swak
Elk ---- ---- ---- Goed Regverdig
Muilbokke ---- Swak Swak Goed Goed
Witstert takbokke Goed Regverdig ---- ---- Swak
Klein soogdiere Goed ---- ---- Goed Goed
Klein nongame voëltjies Goed Goed Regverdig Goed Goed
Hooglandwildvoëls ---- Goed Goed Goed Goed
Watervoëls ---- ---- ---- Regverdig Goed

'N Studie van die voedingsenergiese vereistes van skerpstertroë beveel Russies-olyfvrugte aan as goeie winterkos [62]. In 'n ander verslag word gesê dat Russies-olywe help om 'n winterdieet te bied wat voldoende is om wintertoestande in die noorde van die Groot Vlakte te oorleef ([63] en verwysings daarin).

Seisoenale nabye samestelling en selwandbestanddele (%) van Russies-olyfblare wat in Noord-Pakistan geoes word, word soos volg gegee [11]:

Seisoen droë materiaal ruproteïen neutrale skoonmaakmiddelvesel suur skoonmaakmiddelvesel hemisellulose suur skoonmaakmiddel lignien as
Lente 65.6 14.9 37.5 21.0 16.5 2.5 7.1
Winter 46.7 13.9 31.0 20.8 10.2 5.8 11.8

Bedekkingswaarde: Volgens Borell [16] het Russies-olywe spreidende, netelige takke en ruigtes wat groei bied 'n uitstekende natuurbedekking. Daar word gesê dat treurduiwe, spotvoëls, padlopers en verskeie ander soorte voëls Russies-olywe gebruik vir nesmaak [16]. Volgens Stubbendieck en ander [172] bied Russies-olyf oewerhekke vir ringnek-fisante en broeiplekke vir treurduiwe en sangvoëls in die Groot Vlakte. Sommige broeiplekke vir die suidwestelike wilgvliegvanger word aangetref in oewershabitats wat oorheers word deur byna monotipiese tamarisk en Russies-olyf in die suidweste [188].

Hansen en ander [81] beoordeel die term- of voedingsbedekkingswaarde van Russies-olywe as billik (matig gebruik vir bedekking indien beskikbaar) vir elande en muileherte, en goed (maklik gebruik vir bedekking indien beskikbaar) vir witsterthertjies in Montana. Hulle rangskik die waarde van hitte- of voedingsbedekkings as goed vir bergwildvoëls en klein nongame-voëls, en regverdig vir watervoëls en klein soogdiere [81].

ANDER GEBRUIK:
Russies-olyf is bevorder vir baie gebruike, insluitend byvoorbeeld windbreke en erosiebeheer [41,71,72,84] sneeuvalle [158] riviere en stroomoewer-aanplantings en heinings wat lewende heinings lok [38,41,77,84 ] sier- en landskapaanplantings [39] en nektar vir bye (Hayes 1976, soos aangehaal deur [96]). Dit is gebruik as 'n verpleegkundige gewas vir swart okkerneut (Juglans nigra) vanweë sy stikstofbindingsvermoë [48]. Russies-olywe is geplant op herwonne mynbuites in die sentrale en oostelike VSA [24.144.193], Wyoming [90] en Kalifornië [31]. Dit word in kusgebiede geplant vanweë die vermoë om oseaan-soutbespuiting en neerslag van windsand te weerstaan ​​(Morehart et al 1980, soos aangehaal deur [96]). Russies-olywe is in 1976 gebruik as deel van 'n ingevoerde saadmengsel in 'n studie van vergroeiingstegnieke in 'n noordwestelike Colorado-versteurde groot saggemeenskap [132]. Russies-olyf is sedertdien tot 'n skadelike onkruid in Colorado verklaar [189].

Openbare en private agentskappe het voortgegaan om die aanplant van Russies-olyf vir windskerms en ander tuinboudoeleindes. Onlangs in die 1980's en 1990's subsidieer baie staats- en federale agentskappe die verspreiding van Russies-olyfplantjies in die westelike VSA en Kanada [78,137]. Daarbenewens word plantaanbevelings en verskaffers van saailinge soos deur Borell [16] gegee, dikwels in die literatuur aangetref. Russies-olyf was van 1980 tot 1986 een van die gewildste boomsoorte wat deur kwekerye in die Verenigde State aangebied word, en was veral gewild in die noord-sentrale en westelike streke. Die gewildheid daarvan het aansienlik afgeneem (chi-kwadraat-toets, alfa = 0,05) in die noord-sentrale streek tussen 1980 en 1986. Redes vir verminderde gewildheid word nie gegee of bespiegel nie [133].

Die onlangse navorsing oor onderwerpe soos die chemiese regulering van die groei van Russies-olywe in kwekerye om 'n kompakte vorm te handhaaf, weerstand teen onkruiddoders van Russies-olyfplantjies, behandelings wat wortels in Russies-olyfsteggies vergemaklik, en metodes om Russies-olywe voort te plant uit blaarsegmente en lootstukke ([96] en verwysings daarin).

Daar is gevind dat Russies-olyfblare 'n akkurate biomonitor vir lood, kadmium en sink in gronde van swaarmetaalbesmette grond in Turkye is, en die konsentrasies van swaarmetale in blare korreleer goed met swaarmetaalkonsentrasies in oppervlakgronde [3].

'N Literatuursoektog dui op verskeie verwysings wat dui op medisinale eienskappe van Russies-olyf, maar die onderwerp val buite die bestek van hierdie oorsig.

Houtprodukte: Russies-olyfhout sorg vir goeie brandstof en regverdige omheinings [16].

IMPAKTE EN BEHEER:
Impak: Daar is gevarieerde en ietwat beperkte empiriese bewyse beskikbaar wat die invloed van Russies-olywe op inheemse ekosisteme in Noord-Amerika aantoon. Sommige bewyse dui daarop dat Russies-olyf die inheemse plantegroei vervang, die plantegroei-struktuur verander en die habitat van die wild vir sommige soorte verminder. Daarbenewens het sommige outeurs voorgestel dat Russies-olyf die hidrologie en die siklus van voedingstowwe kan verander [180], hoewel dit nie in die natuurlike omgewing getoets is nie.

Russies-olyf is dikwels indringend in oewergebiede, wat dikwels beïnvloed word deur 'n oorvloed van steurnisse wat deur mense veroorsaak word. "Oewer-ekosisteemfunksies is verander, verminder of verlore gegaan onder die gevolge van rivierbestuuraksies op baie westelike riviere. Omdat ekosisteme kompleks is en vol is met onderling gekoppelde, verwarrende faktore, kan dit moeilik wees om verliese en funksies te kwantifiseer, en om te sorteer Oorsake en gevolge. Ripariese nie-indringende indringers blyk 'n enkele simptoom of faset te wees van 'n komplekse, sistemiese probleem met die toekenning van hulpbronne "[171].

Ranglys: Verskeie agentskappe en organisasies beskou Russies-olyf as indringend in verskillende grade. Die USDA, Forest Service, Eastern Region, beskou Russies-olyf as 'hoogs indringend' (nie-plante wat natuurlike habitats binnedring en inheemse spesies vervang), gebaseer op inligting van lyste, plantkundiges en ekoloë uit 15 van die 20 state in die streek [ 183]. Omgekeerd word Russies-olyf as 'n "soms indringerspesie" beskou (plante wat gewoonlik nie die ekosisteemprosesse beïnvloed nie, maar die samestelling van die plantgemeenskap kan verander deur een of meer inheemse plantsoorte te oortref) deur die departement van bewaring en ontspanning in Virginia. Dit is plante wat dikwels vestig in gebiede wat ernstig versteur word deur gebeure soos ysstorms, windstorting of padbou, en versprei stadig of glad nie van versteurde terreine nie [192]. Russies-olyf word deur die Suidelike Streek van die Amerikaanse Bosdiens as 'n "Kategorie 2-spesie" (nie-naturale plantspesies gerangskik as wat indringend is of waarvan bekend is dat hulle indringend is in beperkte gebiede van die Suidelike Streek). Suidoostelike Raad vir Eksotiese Plaagplante. Kategorie 2-spesies sal gewoonlik vir lang tydperke in die omgewing voortduur sodra hulle gevestig is, en kan onder gunstige toestande indringend raak, wat 'n potensiële risiko vir die integriteit van natuurlike plantgemeenskappe in dele van die streek kan inhou [184]. Die California Invasive Plant Council (Cal-IPC) noem Russies-olywe onder die indringendste wildplaagplante in Kalifornië. Dit word 'gedokumenteer as aggressiewe indringers wat inheemse inwoners verplaas en natuurlike habitats ontwrig' [32]. Daar is egter geen inligting in die literatuur wat spesifiek die verspreiding en impak van Russies-olyf in Kalifornië beskryf nie. Op 'n gegewe terrein kan Russies-olyf teenwoordig wees as verspreide individue, binne afdakke met verskillende soorte of in monotipiese staanplekke [96]. Daar word gesê dat Russies-olyf in baie dele van die Wes-VSA inheemse klimaksoorte verdring en / of die potensiaal het om te verdring, soos die dreinering van die Platterivier van Nebraska [47] en ander vloedvlaktes van die prairierivier [140] moeraslande in Suid-Dakota [137] ] die Rio Grande-kom in Nieu-Mexiko [33,91,123,128], en ander rivierdreineringe in die Suidweste [128].

Verskeie eienskappe gee Russies-olyf 'n voordeel in die gemeenskappe wat dit binnedring, insluitend hoë saadproduksie en lewensvatbaarheid, saadlengte, saadverspreiding deur voëls en soogdiere, vegetatiewe voortplanting na besering, droogte- en soutverdraagsaamheid en die vermoë om vas te stel in die afwesigheid van versteuring in laat opeenvolgende gemeenskappe (sien Botaniese en ekologiese eienskappe). Hierdie eienskappe stel Russies-olyf in staat om sommige dominante, inheemse oewersoorte te vervang wat nie meer kan ontkiem, vestig en aanhou onder toestande wat deur die rivier in beslag geneem word nie (bv. Verhoogde soutgehalte, verminderde oorstromings en afname in die watertafels) en ander gevolge van menslike ontwikkeling [ 4,19,45,64,81,91,111,112,113,123]. Inheemse oewerbome is geneig om pioniers te wees, afhanklik van fisiese versteuring vir werwing [23,96,156]. Vloeistofregulering wat lei tot verminderde vloedpieke en aanwas van die puntbalk, benewens die skoonmaak van land, veebeweiding, beversny, ysbeskadiging en brand, sowel as die indringing van nie-spesies, is almal geïmpliseer in die afname van inheemse houtagtige plantegroei in oewersekosisteme. in die westelike VSA [30,61,67,134,160,171,174]. Dieselfde terreinomstandighede en prosesse wat gelyktydig lei tot die afname van inheemse spesies, bied gelyktydige omstandighede vir die vestiging van Russies-olywe en uiteindelike oorheersing [50,111,112,140,156,188]. Russies-olyf is 'n gedeeltelike oorsaak en 'n simptoom van inheemse spesies neem af [91].

Sodra dit gevestig is, kan Russies-olywe die werwing van inheemse katoenhout en wilg op sommige terreine verder belemmer [47,112]. Waar Russies-olywe byvoorbeeld as 'n belangrike onderkomponent langs die Rio Grande-rivier voorkom, vanaf Espanola tot suid van Belen, Nieu-Mexiko, sal dit deur die bos versprei en bydra tot die stabilisering van die rivieroewers teen toekomstige oorstromings, en sodoende beperk geleenthede vir die herstel van katoenhout verder [91]. Net so, in 'n vergelyking van die vryvloeiende Yellowstone-rivier en die vloeireguleerde Marias-rivier in die ooste van Montana, het Lesica en Miles [111,112,113] bevind dat katoenhout gevestig is en dat dominansie nie deur Russies-olyf aan die boonste dele van die Yellowstone-rivier uitgesluit is nie. oorstromings en ontwikkeling van nuwe kanale skep voortdurend nuwe habitat vir die vestiging van katoenhout. Katoenhout kan egter uiteindelik deur Russies-olywe aan die Mariasrivier vervang word, aangesien ou katoenhout op boonste terrasse sterf en jong katoenhout op lae terrasse deur bewer of vee verwyder word of deur minder smaaklike spesies in die skadu gestel word [111,112,113].

Russies-olywe-oorheersing kan verder lei tot verminderde spesiediversiteit. Russies-olyfstande is struktureel en saamstellend minder uiteenlopend as omliggende gemeenskappe [91,128]. In Montana, byvoorbeeld, ondersteun ongestoorde kolonisasie en gevestigde katoenhoutgemeenskappe onderskeidelik soveel as 114 en 58 plantspesies, vergeleke met slegs 29 spesies in Russies-olyfstande [81 140]. Veranderde strukturele en samestellende plantdiversiteit kan lei tot 'n laer diversiteit in die natuurlewe.

Natuurlewe: The impact of Russian-olive invasions upon wildlife species is variable, site specific, and often debated. Also see the Importance to Livestock and Wildlife section of this report. Anecdotal evidence and observations by managers suggest that several species may be affected by Russian-olive invasion, although in some cases it is unclear whether impacts are caused by Russian-olive itself, or by changes in the ecosystem as a whole. Although Russian-olive has been promoted for use in wildlife habitat plantings, there has been relatively little research on its use by native animals [96].

Knopf and Olson [103] suggest that naturalization of Russian-olive on floodplains in the Rocky Mountains has provided additional wildlife habitat between riparian cottonwood forests and adjacent grass-dominated uplands. In some cases Russian-olive may provide important structural habitat for wildlife species by forming an intermediate-height canopy layer that is lacking in some native riparian forest communities. It may also increase the spatial extent of woody habitat by establishing on the outer edge of native riparian forests, providing additional habitats, especially for those avian species that are associated with tall shrub vegetation. Bird species richness and alpha diversity in monotypic Russian-olive stands were intermediate to those of native riparian and native upland vegetation types in Colorado, Idaho and Utah [103]. However, in some cases Russian-olive forms dense, monotypic stands that replace native communities on floodplains (see above), thus altering and potentially reducing habitat options for wildlife [91,137,140]. Some authors suggest that the displacement of native floodplain forest by Russian-olive can result in loss of habitat for species such as cavity-nesting and insectivorous birds [25,103,112,137,168].

Some researchers have examined Russian-olive's relative usefulness to wildlife as compared with native plant species it replaces, with mixed results. Several studies indicate that Russian-olive is utilized to varying degrees, and with varying degrees of success, by many avian species along the Rio Grande River [110,204], the Gila River [168], the Columbia River (Hudson 2000, as cited by [168]), and the Snake River [25]. However, results and related inference from several studies indicate avoidance of Russian-olive and/or a preference for native plant species by, for example, primary and secondary cavity nesters [168], neotropical migrants (Hudson 2000, as cited by [168]), greater prairie-chicken ([McCarthy et al 1997] and references therein), ducks [70], and foreign guilds in winter [25]. Additionally, Brown [25] found that species richness, abundance and density were greater in willow than in Russian-olive habitats, and all foraging guilds avoided Russian-olive in the breeding season along the Snake River in Idaho.

Other studies and reports indicate less certainty about the role and/or impacts of Russian-olive for native wildlife species. The threatened southwestern willow flycatcher, for example, nests in native vegetation where available but also nests in thickets dominated by Russian-olive and saltcedar, and individuals of both species are used as nesting substrates ([188] and references therein). High-elevation (>6,200 feet (1,900 m)) breeding sites are typically dominated by native trees and shrubs, although Russian-olive is a major habitat component at some high-elevation breeding sites in New Mexico. From the standpoint of flycatcher productivity and survivorship, the suitability of nonnative-dominated habitats is unknown. Flycatcher productivity is lower in nonnative dominated sites compared with native-dominated sites in some locations, and higher in others. It is unclear whether factors such as patch size may have greater effects on flycatcher productivity at those sites. Details are given in the southwestern willow flycatcher recovery plan [188]. Results presented by Kelly and others [100] and Gazda and others [70] also do not seem to support the conjecture that nonnative shrubs in riparian areas provide lower-quality habitat for birds, and Russian-olive does provide a food source for many birds. The role of Russian-olive in native wildlife habitat is unclear for many species [168,204].

For small mammals, species richness was greater in Russian-olive stands than in the native riparian and upland vegetation types (low species richness, intermediate diversity) in Colorado, Idaho and Utah [103]. Native beavers primarily use cottonwood trees while rarely using Russian-olive or tamarisk along several rivers in eastern Montana [111,112,113]. Thus, beavers create areas of lower competitive stress for Russian-olive by felling dominant cottonwoods. Most beaver damaged cottonwoods were cut off at the base, while damage to Russian-olive was usually confined to 1 or 2 basal limbs. Growth rates of both Russian-olive and tamarisk were substantially higher where beavers had reduced the cottonwood canopy cover. Managers wishing to reintroduce beavers should consider the potential effect on invasive plants it may be best to control invasives before reintroducing beavers [113].

Hydrogeology/Nutrient cycling/Other: Some authors have suggested that Russian-olive influences hydrogeomorphic processes, for example by increasing floodplain roughness in habitats where woody vegetation would otherwise not occur (Tickner et al 2001, as cited by [96]), and contributing to stabilization of riverbanks against flooding [91]. There is not, however, literature available that addresses this issue.

As a nitrogen-fixing plant species, Russian-olive has high leaf nitrogen content [153], and leaves and leaf litter of Russian-olive tend to have higher nitrogen content than native species in the communities it invades. Thus, Russian-olive may contribute substantial amounts of additional nitrogen to invaded ecosystems ([96] and references therein). Nodular nitrogenase activity in Russian-olive varies with season and site conditions [206], thus the impacts of an Russian-olive as a novel N-fixing plant in some communities probably also vary. Royer and others [153] found slow processing rates of Russian-olive leaves (compared to natives) in some Idaho streams, and suggested that slowed litter processing might alter local and downstream aquatic communities. However, studies of degradation rates of Russian-olive leaf litter have been inconclusive regarding system nitrogen inputs. So, while invasion by Russian-olive may affect ecosystem nutrient levels, no studies have yet demonstrated this in invaded communities [96].

There is little quantitative information on the historic and present-day spread of Russian-olive, ecological factors that may limit the geographical range of Russian-olive, or its potential for range expansion in western North America. Lesica and Miles [112] approximate a 10-year lag before newly established Russian-olive individuals become reproductively mature in eastern Montana, and Katz and Shafroth [96] suggest inherently slow rates of spatial spread for species such as Russian-olive that possess relatively large, primarily vertebrate-dispersed seed. There is also no published information on competition or facilitation between Russian-olive and co-occurring species. More research is needed on these topics to better understand the potential impacts of Russian-olive in particular plant communities under specific site conditions [96].

Control: Detailed control prescriptions are beyond the scope of this review however, an understanding of what kills or damages Russian-olive may provide insight into how Russian-olive responds to injury, and therefore its potential response to fire. For more detailed management techniques and prescriptions, refer to cited references, the Russian-olive Element Stewardship Abstract, or the Weed control methods handbook.

There is limited published research addressing effective techniques to control or remove Russian-olive from invaded sites. Caplan [34] and Edelen and Crowder [59] present case studies of effective Russian-olive control in New Mexico and Washington, respectively. Tu [180] discusses a variety of control approaches for Russian-olive and provides examples of Russian-olive management on Nature Conservancy preserves. Stannard and others [163] and Deiter [49] assess a variety of suppression methods, including mechanical and chemical approaches. Important considerations for Russian-olive management include age of Russian-olive individuals, timing relative to population establishment and seed set, size of Russian-olive populations, and site conditions, including land use.

Awareness and prevention are probably the most effective tools for managing against Russian-olive invasion. In Montana, for example, invasion by Russian-olive is relatively recent and ongoing, receiving important impetus from domestic plantings [111]. Land managers should be aware of Russian-olive in the area surrounding their management unit. If Russian-olive is present, monitoring for Russian-olive seedling establishment is an important prevention practice. Discourage adjacent landowners from planting Russian-olive if possible. When Russian-olive is already established in an area, it is important to employ control measures where they will be most effective (e.g., where the native vegetation has some chance of recovering).

Control of Russian-olive is difficult once trees are mature, so early detection and rapid response are important [49,180]. Similarly, large, well-established stands of Russian-olive are nearly impossible to eradicate throughout an entire watershed, whereas small patches of Russian-olive can be adequately controlled using a variety of control methods [180]. Additionally, removal of Russian-olive should be undertaken before seeds are fully developed to prevent further spread of seeds [49]. Stevens and Ayers [165] report that heightened awareness, modest field efforts, and early detection have resulted in the control of Russian-olive and other nonnative species in the Grand Canyon.

When planning Russian-olive control, integrating several approaches will likely be necessary, depending on the size, age, and extent of the population. Mowing, cutting, burning, excavation, spraying, girdling, and bulldozing have all been used to reduce aboveground Russian-olive biomass, with varying degrees of success. Russian-olive removal can be labor-intensive and expensive, especially in the 1st year of large-scale removal [180]. Most published accounts of effective Russian-olive suppression employ chemical treatment, either alone or combined with mechanical techniques [49]. Cultural control, in the sense of managing for natives, is an important consideration.

Russian-olive control approaches and successes may differ between riparian areas on free-flowing rivers and streams, where native species have a better chance of re-establishment, and more heavily managed areas along regulated rivers. Where a dynamic disturbance regime maintains most of the active floodplain in early-successional vegetation, only a small proportion of the riparian zone will remain undisturbed long enough to become fully stocked with Russian-olive. Russian-olive is more likely to become dominant in reaches where the riparian zone in less dynamic or where the stream is more entrenched or has been artificially channelized. Consequently, the latter are the places where control measures may have a more long-term benefit [112].

Successful long-term control of Russian-olive requires that all control sites be continually monitored and follow-up treatments applied for several years, since Russian-olive sprouts following injury [180]. Lesica and Miles [112] suggest that, because most Russian-olive invasions in eastern Montana occur over a period of several decades, eradication of mature trees every 10 years or of all plants every 30 years may be effective strategies for controlling Russian-olive in those areas. Rate of spread of Russian-olive probably varies among regions, so this approach may not be effective in some areas.

Prevention: Once established, Russian-olive is difficult to control and nearly impossible to eradicate. Therefore planting of Russian-olive should be eliminated due to its tendency to persist and spread in some areas, and the inevitable costs associated with long-term control [79,81]. Prevention involves awareness and education, working with adjacent landowners and managers to remove Russian-olive from plantings and prevent additional plantings, providing alternative species for planting in areas where Russian-olive is commonly used, managing livestock grazing to minimize damage to native species, maintaining natural disturbance regimes (i.e. seasonal flooding) in riparian areas, and minimizing other human induced disturbances.

According to the USDA, NRCS [186], seed or plants of Russian-olive are available through several suppliers throughout the US, and Russian-olive is not identified as an invasive species on their list. Similarly, Carty [39] recommends 10 drought resistant trees, Russian-olive among them, for planting. While he does mention that Russian-olive is nonnative, considered invasive, and displaces native species across much of the Southwest, he also says, "as long as it's not allowed to spread, it can fill a variety of drought resistant niches." This is the type of misinformation that land managers must contend with when discouraging individuals and organizations from planting "horticulturally desirable" species such as Russian-olive [39]. As long as this type of information and these plant products are available, prevention of new introductions is difficult.

Choosing noninvasive landscape ornamentals to plant at sites near natural areas can help prevent the spread of Russian-olive [52]. In the Southern Region, Russian-olive is classified as a "Category 2" species. Therefore planting is prohibited in areas where ecological conditions would favor invasiveness and is discouraged elsewhere. They suggest consulting the forest botanist, plant ecologist, or forest noxious weed coordinator for alternative native and/or noninvasive species [184]. Stannard and others [163] provide a list of native, woody species that could be planted instead of Russian-olive in the northern Great Plains.

The potential benefits of Russian-olive to landowners for windbreaks, soil stabilization and ornamental plantings must be weighed against potential negative impacts to native communities [140]. Winter [148] recommends working with landowners and managers to remove Russian-olive from shelter belts and tree plantings, and to recommend desirable, native species for future plantings in Minnesota.

Lack of natural regeneration of native species in western riparian areas may be due, in part, to cattle grazing in the Great Plains and cattle and elk grazing in the Southwest [134]. When browsing among the multispecies patches of seedlings that germinate on bare sediments after floods, livestock feed upon the more palatable cottonwoods and willows, thus favoring dominance of tamarisk and Russian-olive. Additionally, mature Russian-olive exhibits several traits that allow it to thrive in grazed habitats, including sharp thorns, which increase in density if the tree is cut back, and large seeds that may enhance the survival of seedlings following browsing. These adaptations may contribute to spread of Russian-olive into heavily-grazed meadows and pastures ([188] and references therein). Initial Russian-olive seedling establishment may be prevented in an area with targeted grazing, granivory (using animals that would eat Russian-olive seedlings and/or seeds), or temporary inundation [96].

Water diversion, groundwater pumping [91,170], and sand and gravel mining also impact native species regeneration in the Southwest [134,170]. Hydrologic alterations have been implicated in the widespread decline of some riparian forest types and in facilitating invasions by opportunistic nonnative species ([96] and references therein). Indeed, it is likely that reduced levels of fluvial disturbance downstream from dams favor invasion of Russian-olive [95,111,112,156]. Current interest in changing river-flow management strategies to restore native fish [151] and/or native riparian forest [123] provides hope for the possible control of invasive riparian plant species via restoration of ecosystem processes (also see FEIS review on tamarisk). At present, it is unclear how prescribed flows might influence the spread or abundance of Russian-olive. Ideally, river flow regimes designed to improve regeneration and survival of native riparian forest species will also limit the success of nonnative invaders [96].

Integrated management: Integrated management includes considerations of not only killing the target weed, but also of establishing desirable species and maintaining weed-free systems over the long-term. Factors to be addressed before a management decision is made include inventory and assessment to identify the target weed and determine the size of the infestation(s) assessment of nontarget vegetation, soil types, climatic conditions, and important water resources and an evaluation of the benefits and limitations of control methods [129].

On Hempstead Plains in Uniondale, New York, where Russian-olive and other nonnative trees and shrubs are present, restoration has been attempted to re-establish the prairie matrix. Controlled burns, mowing, herbicides and reintroduction of native species have all been used, but no results were given [131].

Deiter [49] reports that the most effective means of Russian-olive control employs a combination of pulling out small individuals from moist soil using a weed wrench, and cutting larger individuals at ground level and then immediately applying a small amount of herbicide to the cut stumps. Similarly, Caplan [34] describes controlling small ( Physical/mechanical: Physical control techniques alone may be suitable for removal of Russian-olive seedlings and saplings, whereas control of larger individuals usually requires application of herbicide or removal of the stump by burning, since cut trees typically sprout from the roots and root crown [52].

Manually removing seedlings and saplings ( Fire: See the Fire Management Considerations section of this summary.

Biological: Research on biological control agents has not been undertaken for Russian-olive [49].

Herbivory does not seem to limit Russian-olive invasion in western North America to any great extent. Reviews indicate that few insects are found on Russian-olive [96,177]. Grasshoppers sometimes consume leaves of young trees as well as the fleshy part of the fruit, but rarely do serious damage [54].

Although domestic livestock browse Russian-olive, the observation that Russian-olive commonly invades grazed meadows and pastures suggests that herbivory does not prevent its survival or limit its spread. Additionally, Russian-olive seedling survival may be enhanced by large seed size, and Russian-olive adults possess several adaptations to deter grazers, including sharp thorns and leaves containing abundant defense compounds ([95] and references therein). On the other hand, granivory by generalist mammals (primarily house mice and deer mice) completely prevented germination of Russian-olive seeds outside of small mammal exclosures in study plots in Colorado [95].

There is a fair amount of literature on the susceptibility and/or immunity of Russian-olive to various diseases (e.g. [54,162]), although none have been proposed as a potential biological control agents.

Chemical: Herbicides may be effective in gaining initial control of a new invasion or a severe infestation, but are rarely a complete or long-term solution to weed management. Use of herbicides may be limited in natural areas, and it is suggested that native species large enough to provide "good structure" be present to fill the niche left by removed Russian-olives [148]. See the Weed control methods handbook for considerations on the use of herbicides in natural areas and detailed information on specific chemicals and techniques. Herbicides that have been reported as effective at controlling Russian-olive to varying degrees include glyphosate, imazapyr, triclopyr, picloram, and 2,4-D.

Foliar spraying of herbicide has provided "successful control" of Russian-olive in some cases, although long-term response is unclear. This approach may be neither feasible nor desirable in many riparian settings ([96] and references therein) due to potential effects on nontarget species, and potential for overspray or drift when applied to large stands [180]. Small seedlings can also be killed with foliar applications of a mixture of picloram and 2,4-D [148]

Cut-stump herbicide treatments can be effective if the cut surface is treated with herbicide immediately after cutting. Cuts should be made as close to the ground as possible [49,52,148,180]. In an 80-acre (32 ha) cottonwood gallery forest on the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico, Russian-olive is the codominant tree in mixed stands. From November 1998 through February 1999, Russian-olive less than 4 inches (10 cm) in diameter were mowed, using mulching tractors, larger trees were cut with chainsaws, and triclopyr ester was applied to the cut stump within 5 minutes of cutting. A second pass was made with mulching tractors to pulverize the remaining tree waste. By summer, 1999, Russian-olive root sprouts occurred throughout the site. Numerous root sprouts were found within close proximity of larger, sprayed stumps, suggesting that the rate of triclopyr used was not effective on stumps exceeding 8 inches (20 cm) in diameter. Triclopyr was applied to leaves of Russian-olive root sprouts each year for 3 subsequent summers. Each follow-up treatment required fewer people and less time. Continued monitoring and spot treatments keeps Russian-olive under control at the site [34].

For trees that do not have to be removed or immediately taken down, exposing more than 50% of the cambium by cutting into the bark with a saw or ax close to ground level and introducing herbicides into the exposed areas is also effective [49]. Deiter [49] reports that injecting herbicide capsules around base of trunk has also been successful for controlling Russian-olive. When injecting herbicides into the cambium of a standing tree, monitoring should occur during the same year to ensure that the entire tree is affected [49].

Conversely, Edelen and Crowder [59] propose killing the top-growth with herbicide (imazapyr), followed by mechanical control of resprouts as an effective alternative to cutting and then mowing resprouts. A project to test this control approach was begun in August 1996 in south-central Washington [59], and resulted in a 90% kill rate (personal communication from Crowder as cited by [180]).

Monitoring for sprouting from cut stumps and/or roots, or seedling establishment should be done for several years following treatment [34,148,163].

Cultural: In all cases of Russian-olive control, it is important that desirable plant species be planted or otherwise cultivated to discourage re-establishment of Russian-olive. Additionally, promotion of natural processes (e.g. natural flooding regimes) may be important to manage for desirable native species. In areas where natural disturbance processes still function, removal of Russian-olive may facilitate recovery of native species. On regulated rivers and areas with intensive livestock grazing, removal or suppression of Russian-olive is likely to be only temporary, unless measures are taken to promote establishment and persistence of native species. Stannard and others [163] and Brock [20] provide lists of species useful for replacement of Russian-olive and rehabilitation of Russian-olive-infested sites.

In southwestern riparian ecosystems, managing for native species may be more successful than managing against nonnative species [171]. Elimination of the stresses, such as high salinity and reduced stream flows, that favor nonnative plants over native plants may be necessary if native plant communities are to be sustained ([188] and references therein). Stromberg and Chew [171] provide some constructive options for restoring functionality to southwestern desert riparian ecosystems. They also indicate that it is unlikely that nonnative species will be eradicated from southwestern riparian systems, but that it is also unlikely that simply removing nonnatives would allow natives to thrive where conditions no longer favor them [171]. Along these lines, Stromberg [170] discusses the ecology, threats and recovery potential of cottonwood and willow in southwestern riparian systems. See the FEIS review on tamarisk for more information on this subject.

Obedzinski and others [134] suggest that in the case of dams and diversions, we may need to accept that a return to natural, sustainable conditions may not be possible, and that we may need to design management techniques, such as timed interval flooding and artificial seedbeds, to maintain riparian function. We may also need to learn the silvics of nonnative species and utilize them according to where they best fit into riparian systems [134].


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